About 12th (HSC) Commerce Streem
Today Commerce stream is a very popular choice among students. XII or HSC commerce is an important land mark in student's academic journey.
Second year of junior college is a stepping stone in student's academic year, as marks of 12th are crucial for admission to first year of Graduation. HSC laid the foundation on which a student's career is built. Commerce stream is great for those students who are serious about pursuing a career in finance, accounts, chartered accountancy, economics, banking, business and management. Commerce course covers basically accounting, economics and related subjects relevant to trade and business.
12th (HSC)(XII) Commerce Maharastra State Board
FAQ about 12th Commerce; syllabus, Pattern, Coaching, etc.
What are the subjects for 12th (XII) HSC Commerce?
Subjects avaliable for 12th (HSC) commerce
2 Environment Education
3 Health and Physical Education
4 Information Technologyor
Modern Indian or Foreign Languages (any one of the following)
5 Mathematics and Statistics
7 Book-keeping and Accountancy
8 Organization of Commerce and Management
What is the syllabus of Bookkeeping and accountancy for 12th (XII) HSC Commerce?
Book-keeping and Accountancy
1. Introduction to Partnership1.1 Meaning and definitions
1.2 The Indian partnership Act 1932
1.3 Methods of capital accounts
i) Fixed Capital Method
ii) Fluctuating Capital Method
1.A. Partnership Final Accounts2.1 Introduction and Necessity of preparation of Final Accounts with following adjustments.
a. Closing stock
b. Outstanding expenses
c. Prepaid expenses
d. Income received in advance
e. Income receivable
f. Bad debts
g. Provision for doubtful debts
h. Reserve for discount on debtors and creditors
j. Interest on capital, drawings and loans
k. Interest on investment and loans
l. Goods destroyed by fire/ accident (insured / uninsured)
m. Goods stolen
n. Goods distributed as free samples
o. Goods withdrawn by partners
p. Unrecorded purchases and sales
q. Capital expenditure included in revenue expenses and vice-versa
r. Bills Receivable dishonored
s. Bills payable dishonored
t. Deferred expenses
u. Capital receipts included in revenue. Receipts and vice-versa
v. Commission to working partner/ Managers on the basis of Gross profit, Net profit, sales, etc.
3. Reconstitution of Partnership3.1 Meaning and different ways of reconstitution
3.2 Admission of a partner
3.2.1 Meaning and Need
3.2.2 Capital brought by new partner
3.2.3 New profit sharing ratio
3.2.4 Sacrifice ratio
3.2.5 Goodwill - Meaning, Methods of valuation and treatment of goodwill.
i) Average profit method
ii) Super profit method
3.2.6 Adjustment of accumulated profits and losses.
3.2.7 Revaluation of assets and liabilities
3.2.8 Adjustment of capitals
3.3 Retirement / Death of a partner
3.3.1 Meaning, need
3.3.2 New ratio
3.3.3 Gain ratio
3.3.4 Treatment of goodwill
3.3.5 Adjustment of accumulated profits and lossess
3.3.6 Revaluation of assets and liabilities
3.3.7 Adjustment of capital
3.3.8 Amount due to retiring parter
3.3.9 Death of partner
4. Dissolution of Partnership Firm4.1 Simple dissolution
4.2 Dissolution under Insolvency situation
5. Accounts of Not for Profit concerns5.1 Introduction, meaning and features of Not for Profit concerns.
5.2 Receipts and Payments Account meaning and features. Distinction between Income and Expenditure account.
5.3 Preparation of Income and Expenditure Account and Balance Sheet with the following
a) Additional Information
1. Outstanding expenses and prepaid expenses of the current and previous year
2. Accrued income and income received in advance
3. Subscription received in advance and Subscription outstanding of the current and previous year
5. Capitalisation of entrance fees.
6. Creation of special funds out of donations
7. Stock of stationery
8. Opening balances of assets and liabilities
b) Important Items
Entrance fees, Subscriptions, Legacy, life membership fees, Sale of old assets, Scrap, Newspapers, Specific donation, General Donations, Specific Funds, Endowment fund
6. Single entry system6.1 Introduction
_ Meaning of single entry system.
_ Difference between single entry and double entry system.
6.2 Preparation of statements
6.3 Additional information.
_ Additional capital
_ Depreciation on fixed Asset
_ Bad Debts
_ Reserve for Doubtful Debts
_ Undervaluation and Overvaluation of Assets and Liabilities
_ Interest on loan
_ Interest on capital
_ Interest on Drawings
_ Partners salary
_ Outstanding / Unpaid expenses
_ Prepaid Expenses/ Expenses paid in advance.
7. Bill of Exchange (Only Trade Bill)7.1 Introduction, necessity, Meaning, Definition of Bill of Exchange
7.2 Draft/format of Bills, Parties to the Bill of Exchange, Acceptance of Bill, Terms of Bill, Days of Grace, Date of maturity, Due Date, Types of Bill
7.3 Honouring of Bill, Dishonour of Bill, Noting and Protesting of Bill, Notary Public and Noting Charges
7.4 Accounting Treatment of Bill by the Drawer/Holder and Drawee in
a) Retaining the Bill till due date. honour/dishonour, insolvency of the
b) Endorsement of the Bill, Honour/ dishonour and also insolvency of acceptor
c) Discounting the Bill with the Bank honour/dishonour and insolvency.
d) Sending the Bill to the Bank for collection, honour/ dishonour and insolvency
e) Renewal of Bill-Reasons for Renewal of the Bill. Renewal of Bill with or without charging interest
f) Making part payment of basic amount, interest and noting charges and drawing of new Bill
g) Honour/dishonour of New Bill
h) Insolvency of the acceptor and settlement of his account
i) Retirement of Bill
j) Journal Entries and Ledger
8. Company Accounts Part-I Accounting for shares8.1 Share and share capital, Meaning, Nature and Types
8.2 Accounting for Share Capital: Issue and Allotment of Equity Shares.
Private placement of shares. Public subscription of shares. Over
subscription and Under subscription of shares. Issue at Par and premium, and at discount, Calls in advance in arrears, Issue of shares for
consideration other than cash
8.3 Accounting treatment of forfeiture and re-issue
8.4 Disclosure of Share capital in Company's Balance Sheet (Horizontal form)
9. Company Accounts Part-II Accounting for Debentures9.1 Debentures : Meaning, Issue of debentures at par, at premium and at discount
9.2 Issue of debentures for consideration other than cash. Interest on Debentures
10. Analysis of financial statements10.1 Financial statement Analysis: meaning, objectives and limitations
10.2 Tools for financial statement Analysis-meaning of comparative statements, common size statements, cash flow analysis, and Ratio analysis
10.3 Accounting Ratios : Meaning objectives and classification of Ratios
10.4 Introductions to current ratio, liquid ratio, Gross profit ratio, operating profit ratio and Net profit ratio. ROI, ROCI
What is the syllabus of Economics for 12th (XII) HSC Commerce?
Section A: Micro Economics1. Introduction to Micro Economics
2. Consumers behavior
a. Analysis of Demand
b. Elasticity of Demand
4. Analysis of Supply
5. Types of Market & Price determination under Perfect competition
6. Factors of Production
Section B: Macro Economics7. Introduction to Macro Economics
8. National Income
9. Determinants of Aggregates
11. Commercial Bank
12. Central Bank
13. Public Economics
What is the syllabus of Organisation of Commerce & management for 12th (XII) HSC Commerce??
Organization of Commerce and Management
UNIT-1 Forms of business organizations_ Sole proprietorship, Joint Hindu Family Business; meaning, features, merits and demerits.
_ Partnership; meaning, types, registration, merits, limitations, types of partners.
_ Co-Operative societies; types, merits and limitations.
_ Company; Private Ltd, Public Ltd: merits, limitations.
_ Starting a business; Basic factors.
_ Choice of forms of business organizations.
UNIT-2 Business services_ Nature and types of Business services;
Banking, Insurance, Transportation, Warehousing, communication.
_ Banking; types of banks, functions of commercial banks, E-banking.
_ Insurance; principles & types of life, fire, marine insurances.
_ Postal and Telecom services.
_ Warehousing; types and functions.
_ Transport; meaning, role, means.
UNIT -3 Emerging modes of Business_ E - business ; Meaning, Scope and benefits. Resource required for successful
E-Business implementation. On-line transactions, payment mechanism.
_ Security and safety of business transactions.
_ Outsourcing ; Concept, need and scope.
UNIT-4 Social Responsibilities of business and business ethics._ Concept of social responsibility.
_ Cases for social responsibility.
_ Responsibility towards different interest groups, owners, investors, employees, consumers, government, community, public in general.
_ Business ethics; concept and elements.
_ Business and environmental protection.
UNIT-5 Consumer protection_ Importance of consumer protection.
_ Rights of consumers
_ Consumer responsibilities.
_ Ways and means of consumer protection.
_ Consumer awareness and legal redressal with special reference to Consumer Protection Act.
_ Role of Consumer Organization and NGOS.
UNIT-6 Principles of Management_ Principles of Management ; meaning, nature and significance. _ Fayol's Principles of Management. _ Taylor's scientific management; Principles and Techniques.
UNIT-7 Functions of Management_ Planning ; Meaning, Nature, Importance.
_ Organizing ; Meaning, Nature, Importance.
_ Staffing ; Meaning, Nature, Importance.
_ Directing ; Meaning, Nature, Importance.
_ Controlling ; Meaning, Nature, Importance.
_ Coordinating ; Meaning, Nature, Importance.
UNIT-8 Entrepreneurship Development_ Concept, Functions and Need.
_ Entrepreneurship: Characteristics and Competencies.
_ Process of entrepreneurship development.
_ Entrepreneurship Values: Attitudes and Motivation- Meaning and concept.
What is the syllabus of Secretarial Practice for 12th (XII) HSC Commerce?
UNIT-1 Business Finance_ Business Finance ; Meaning, role, objectives of financial management.
_ Financial planning ; Meaning and importance.
_ Capital structure ; Meaning and factors.
_ Fixed and working capital ; Meaning and factors affecting their requirements.
UNIT-2 Sources of Business Finance_ Nature and significance: Financial requirements and sources.
_ Methods of raising finance
Equity and preference shares
Debentures and Bonds
Loan from commercial banks
Loan from financial institutions
Discounting of bills of Exchange
Global Depository Receipt, American Depository Receipt
UNIT-3 Role of a Secretary in the Capital Formation Part I_ Meaning of issue of shares at par, premium and discount, at bid price
_ Meaning of Initial public offer.
_ Meaning of bonus issue
_ Meaning of rights issue
_ Meaning of Employee stock option scheme
_ Meaning of private placement.
_ Issue of shares : procedure
_ Allotment : Meaning, conditions for valid allotment, procedure
_ Transfer and Transmission of shares : Meaning, provisions, procedure, difference.
_ Issue of share certificate and share warrant: Meaning, provisions, procedure, difference.
UNIT-4 Role of a Secretary in the Capital Formation Part II_Issue of debentures : procedure, conversion and redemption of debentures
_ Deposits : invitation, acceptance, renewal, repayment, default and remedies
_ Depositories and dematerialization of securities : meaning, importance, procedure, secretarial duties in issuing securities in dematerialized form
UNIT-5 Declaration and payment of dividend_ Meaning
_ Provisions related to ascertainment of dividend, declaration of dividend and payment of dividend.
_ Procedure of payment of dividend.
_ Provisions regarding unpaid / unclaimed dividend
_ Interim and final dividend : Meaning and difference
UNIT-6 Correspondence of company secretary with members, debenture holders and depositors_ Allotment of shares
_ Regret letter
_ Lodgement notice
_ Approval / Refusal of Transfer of shares
_ Issue of bonus shares
_ Distribution of dividend : notice
_ Allotment of debentures
_ Redemption of debentures
_ Conversion of debentures into shares
_ Payment of interest on debentures
_ Letter thanking the investor for deposits
_ Payment of interest (Basic information of TDS to be given)
_ Renewal of deposits
_ Repayment of deposits
UNIT -7 Financial markets_ Concept of Financial market
_ Money market : nature, instruments.
_ Capital market- nature and constituents ; primary and secondary market.
_ Distinction between capital market and money market.
_ Stock Exchange : meaning, functions, BSE, NSEI, Trading procedure.
_ Securities Exchange Board of India (SEBI) objectives, functions.
What is the syllabus of Mathematics for 12th (XII) HSC Commerce??
Mathematics & Statistics
PART - 1
1. Mathematical logic1.1 Statements
1.2 Logical Connectives
1.3 Statement patterns and logical equivalence
1.4 Algebra of statements
1.5 Venn diagrams
2. Matrices2.1 Definition of complex number - 2.1 Definition and types of matrices
2.2 Algebra of matrices
2.3 Inverse of a matrix
2.4 Solution of equations
3. Continuity3.1 Continuity of a function at a point
4. Differentiation4.1 Derivative of Inverse function
4.2 Logarithmic Differentiation
4.3 Derivative of implicit function
4.4 Derivative of parametric function
4.5 Second order derivative
5. Applications of Derivative5.1 Increasing and decreasing functions
5.2 Maxima and minima
6. Indefinite Integration6.1 Definition of an integral
6.2 Integral of standard functions
6.3 Rules of Integration
6.4 Methods of Integration
6.5 Integration by parts
7. Definite Integrals7.1 Definite Integral
PART - 2
1. Ratio, Proportion and Partnership1.1 Ratio, proportion and partnership
2. Commission, Brokerage and Discount2.1 Commission and Brokerage
3. Insurance and Annuity3.1 Insurance
4. Demography4.1 Introduction, Definition
4.2 Uses of vital statistics
4.3 Measurements of Mortality
4.4 Life tables
5. Bivariate Data and Correlation5.1 Bivariate frequency distribution
5.2 Karl Pearson?s coefficient of correlation
5.3 Rank correlation
6. Regression Analysis Introduction6.1 Equation of line of regression
6.2 Regression coefficients and their properties
7. Random Variable and Probability Distribution7.1 Definition and types of random variables
7.2 Probability Distribution of a Discrete Random Variable
7.3 Probability Distribution of a Continuous Random Variable
7.4 Binomial Theorem
7.5 Binomial Distribution
7.6 Poisson Distribution
7.7 Normal Distribution
8. Management Mathematics8.1 Inequations
8.2 Linear Programming Problem
8.3 Assignment Problem
What is the admission procedure for 12th (XII) HSC Commerce coaching at STEP's Foundation?
Since STEP's Foundation is the popular choice of Parents and Students, there is a rush for admission as soon as XI (11th) exams are over. Our regular batch for class 12th (HSC) starts from First week of April, We accept admission on first come first serve bases. As our batch size is limited it is advisable to take admission well in advance to avoid disappointment.
Is Online Classes / Online Learning / Online Coaching available for 12th (XII) HSC Commerce coaching at STEP's Foundation?
Yes Online Learning / Online classes are available at STEP's Foundation With our students online learning app, the students can learn and access to all information and video lectures from anywhere.
We are leading commerce coaching institute in Pune,
having focous on 11th / 12th Commerce, BBA, BBA ib and B.com. coaching.
STEP's Foundation is a professionally managed yet passionately driven coaching class.
We are known for quality coaching, highly disciplined teaching methodology, authenticity and transparency.The student's are greatly benefited from highly competent & passionate faculties and there innovative methodologies of teaching.
In this years we have earned the confidence & respect not only of students but also of parents.
Commerce Coaching for 12th (XII) (HSC) Commerce, Covering Subjects: Bookkeeping & Accountancy, Mathematics & Statistics, Economics, Secretarial Practice (S.P.) & Organization of Commerce and Management (O.C.M.)
Why STEPs Foundation
Teachers play a crucial role in determining whether their students learn successfully. We are a team of young, dynamic and passionate teachers, with an enthusiasm not just to enrich our students in academic but to inspire them to be a good human. We are known for quality coaching, highly disciplined teaching methodology, authenticity and transparency. The students are greatly benefited from our highly competent & passionate teachers and there innovative methodologies of teaching.
Teachers must engage students in learning activities that lead to a higher level of understanding and result in the student's ability to apply what he learned. Interactive teaching is a two-way process of active participant engagement with each other, the teacher, and the content. We use and apply Latest teaching tools, technologies, and methods in order to provide students the best learning possible.
Study materials are important because they can significantly increase student achievement by supporting student's learning. Our Student's study material is developed by experienced education professionals keeping in mind student's learning requirement.
We are quality oriented coaching institute and not quantity oriented. We keep our batch size to only 25 students per batch, keeping the student teacher ratio low. Small batch size makes it possible for the teacher to give personal attention on every student, making the teacher student relation friendlier.
Gone are the days, when the only option for the students to read books. The innovative app makes it easy for the students to revise their lessons in an effective and interactive way.
The Video Lectures are available round the clock. Therefore, learning is not time-bound, rather it is relaxed learning. We all know that time-bound learning is not much effective, as children get distracted very easily and are not able to concentrate continuously for a long time. Thus, Video Lectures the best regarding this issue, as they are available 24/7, and the students can study as per their convenience.
Online Tests Online test play an important role and provide an array of benefits to both the student and the institute. Testing is made unique by randomizing question and answer order. This is especially useful when a student has to re-do a test which he/she previously had poor performance on so that the test is not completed by memory, but rather by actually thinking through the correct solution once again.
The attendance of students is very important factor since it forms part of the student's assessment and evaluation. Biometric attendance keeps the parents informed about the student's attendance via Email & SMS alerts.
12th Commerce Online Learning
The future of education belongs in technology, specifically mobile technology and apps,
not only is quality in content paramount, but they also need to suit the learner.
Students are more driven towards using a mobile phone for every purpose, and in this situation, online learning can be the perfect way to attract the students and convince them to study.
With online learning app, the students can get access to any information from anywhere. Therefore, online learning is the most interactive and constructive way to attract the students towards studies and enhance their productivity.
Benefits of online Learning.
- Interactive Video Lectures
- 24/7 availability
- online study material
- Subjects Covered: Book-keeping & Accountancy, Economics, SP & OCM
Online Learning Features
Video Lectures ensure interactive and effective learning, by transforming the boring lessons and helping the students to visualize each and everything. The videos are available topic wise explaining the concept covering all types of difficulty levels.
Learning will not be confined to the classroom alone, as the app allow pupils to take their learning into their own hands and they can study and at any point and anywhere.
Testing and quizzing online will provide the students with results instantly, it allows them to know what they did wrong, what they need to focus on and what to improve.
Students's progress, which is one of the most important things that every parent wants to explore. It is easy for the parents to track their child's overall or individual subject progress.
Learning on the go!
Gone are the days, when the only option for the students to read books. The innovative app makes it easy for the students to revise their lessons in an effective and interactive way.
Video Lectures ensure interactive and effective learning, by transforming the boring lessons and helping the students to visualize each and everything. Video Lectures are available topic wise explaining the concept covering all types of difficulty levels.
Video Lectures are available round the clock. Therefore, learning is not time-bound, rather it is relaxed learning. We all know that time-bound learning is not much effective, as students get distracted very easily and are not able to concentrate continuously for a long time. Thus, Video Lectures the best regarding this issue, as they are available 24/7, and the students can study as per their convenience.
Online Study Material and Tests
It is obvious that none of us leave our mobile phones at home while going somewhere. Using apps have become a part of the daily routine, whether you watch a video on the way to work or play games at lunch, your phone is always with you. Thus, our app can be the constant companion for the student, as they are available to children anywhere, anytime. With the help of our app, learning will not be confined to the classroom alone, as the apps allow pupils to take their learning into their own hands and they can study at any point in the day.
Online test play an important role and provide an array of benefits to both the student and the institute. Testing is made unique by randomizing question and answer order. This is especially useful when a student has to re-do a test which he/she previously had poor performance on so that the test is not completed by memory, but rather by actually thinking through the correct solution once again.
Tests and quizzes online have always been a motivator to study harder when students know that their progress will be judged upon an exam, a performance review etc. It sets a deadline for when material needs to be learned by and diligent students know they must adhere to that.
As an institute is also important for us to know the student's progress as it will help us to guide them accordingly.
We can analyse the overall or topic wise or subject wise progress of every student, it will help us to know the problem are of the student and can make an action plan suitable to them.
On the app, parents can track their children's progress, which is one of the most important things that every parent wants to explore. It is easy for the parents to track their child's overall or individual subject progress.
Download The app now!
Download the app today and take the advantage of dual learning, Classroom coaching + online learning on the app. You can also enrol only for Online Learning.
Just to name a few!