About Commerce

Second year of junior college is a stepping stone in student's academic year, as marks of 12th are crucial for admission to first year of Graduation. HSC laid the foundation on which a student's career is built. Commerce stream is great for those students who are serious about pursuing a career in finance, accounts, chartered accountancy, economics, banking, business and management. Commerce course covers basically accounting, economics and related subjects relevant to trade and business.

12th Commerce Coaching & Curriculum:
To know more about 12th Commerce Syllabus & Coaching details, please Watch Video.

12th (SYJC) curriculum topics

* Accounting

* Economics

* Secretarial Practice

* Mathematics & Statistics (is optional, but important for students to build a better base for higher studies like CA, ICWA, CFA, MBA etc.,)

* Organization of Commerce

Higher studies after 12th After XII

* Bachelor's Degree in Commerce (B.Com)

* Bachelor's of Business Administration (B.B.A.)

* Bachelor's of Business Management (B.B.M.)

* Chartered Accountancy (C.P.T.)

12th Commerce Study Material

12th Commerce Maharashtra board study material

Detailed Syllabus 12th





Maharashtra State Board

Sr. No.



Book-keeping and Accountancy

1. Introduction to Partnership

1.1 Meaning and definitions

1.2 The Indian partnership Act 1932

1.3 Methods of capital accounts

i) Fixed Capital Method

ii) Fluctuating Capital Method

2. Partnership Final Accounts

2.1 Introduction and Necessity of preparation of Final Accounts with following adjustments.


a. Closing stock

b. Outstanding expenses

c. Prepaid expenses

d. Income received in advance

e. Income receivable

f. Bad debts

g. Provision for doubtful debts

h. Reserve for discount on debtors and creditors

i. Depreciation

j. Interest on capital, drawings and loans

k. Interest on investment and loans

l. Goods destroyed by fire/ accident (insured / uninsured)

m. Goods stolen

n. Goods distributed as free samples

o. Goods withdrawn by partners

p. Unrecorded purchases and sales

q. Capital expenditure included in revenue expenses and vice-versa

r. Bills Receivable dishonored

s. Bills payable dishonored

t. Deferred expenses

u. Capital receipts included in revenue. Receipts and vice-versa

v. Commission to working partner/ Managers on the basis of Gross profit, Net profit, sales, etc.

3. Reconstitution of Partnership

3.1 Meaning and different ways of reconstitution

3.2 Admission of a partner

3.2.1 Meaning and Need

3.2.2 Capital brought by new partner

3.2.3 New profit sharing ratio

3.2.4 Sacrifice ratio

3.2.5 Goodwill - Meaning, Methods of valuation and treatment of goodwill.

i) Average profit method

ii) Super profit method

3.2.6 Adjustment of accumulated profits and losses.

3.2.7 Revaluation of assets and liabilities

3.2.8 Adjustment of capitals

3.3 Retirement / Death of a partner

3.3.1 Meaning, need

3.3.2 New ratio

3.3.3 Gain ratio

3.3.4 Treatment of goodwill

3.3.5 Adjustment of accumulated profits and lossess

3.3.6 Revaluation of assets and liabilities

3.3.7 Adjustment of capital

3.3.8 Amount due to retiring parter

3.3.9 Death of partner

4. Dissolution of Partnership Firm

4.1 Simple dissolution

4.2 Dissolution under Insolvency situation

5. Accounts of �Not for Profit� concerns

5.1 Introduction, meaning and features of �Not for Profit� concerns.

5.2 Receipts and Payments Account meaning and features. Distinction between Income and Expenditure account.

5.3 Preparation of Income and Expenditure Account and Balance Sheet with the following

a) Additional Information

1. Outstanding expenses and prepaid expenses of the current and previous year

2. Accrued income and income received in advance

3. Subscription received in advance and Subscription outstanding of the current and previous year

4. Depreciation

5. Capitalisation of entrance fees.

6. Creation of special funds out of donations

7. Stock of stationery

8. Opening balances of assets and liabilities

b) Important Items

Entrance fees, Subscriptions, Legacy, life membership fees, Sale of old assets, Scrap, Newspapers, Specific donation, General Donations, Specific Funds, Endowment fund

6. Single entry system

6.1 Introduction

_ Meaning of single entry system.

_ Difference between single entry and double entry system.

6.2 Preparation of statements

6.3 Additional information.

_ Additional capital

_ Drawings

_ Depreciation on fixed Asset

_ Bad Debts

_ Reserve for Doubtful Debts

_ Undervaluation and Overvaluation of Assets and Liabilities

_ Interest on loan

_ Interest on capital

_ Interest on Drawings

_ Partners salary

_ Outstanding / Unpaid expenses

_ Prepaid Expenses/ Expenses paid in advance.

7. Bill of Exchange (Only Trade Bill)

7.1 Introduction, necessity, Meaning, Definition of Bill of Exchange

7.2 Draft/format of Bills, Parties to the Bill of Exchange, Acceptance of Bill, Terms of Bill, Days of Grace, Date of maturity, Due Date, Types of Bill

7.3 Honouring of Bill, Dishonour of Bill, Noting and Protesting of Bill, Notary Public and Noting Charges

7.4 Accounting Treatment of Bill by the Drawer/Holder and Drawee in

following cases

a) Retaining the Bill till due date. honour/dishonour, insolvency of the

drawee/ acceptor

b) Endorsement of the Bill, Honour/ dishonour and also insolvency of


c) Discounting the Bill with the Bank honour/dishonour and insolvency.

d) Sending the Bill to the Bank for

collection, honour/ dishonour and insolvency

e) Renewal of Bill-Reasons for Renewal of the Bill. Renewal of Bill with or

without charging interest

f) Making part payment of basic amount, interest and noting charges and

drawing of new Bill

g) Honour/dishonour of New Bill

h) Insolvency of the acceptor and settlement of his account

i) Retirement of Bill

j) Journal Entries and Ledger

8. Company Accounts Part-I Accounting for shares

8.1 Share and share capital, Meaning, Nature and Types

8.2 Accounting for Share Capital: Issue and Allotment of Equity Shares.

Private placement of shares. Public subscription of shares. Over

subscription and Under subscription of shares. Issue at Par and premium, and at discount, Calls in advance in arrears, Issue of shares for

consideration other than cash

8.3 Accounting treatment of forfeiture and re-issue

8.4 Disclosure of Share capital in Company�s Balance Sheet (Horizontal form)

9. Company Accounts Part-II Accounting for Debentures

9.1 Debentures : Meaning, Issue of debentures at par, at premium and at


9.2 Issue of debentures for consideration other than cash. Interest on


10. Analysis of financial statements

10.1 Financial statement Analysis: meaning, objectives and limitations

10.2 Tools for financial statement Analysis-meaning of comparative statements, common size statements, cash flow analysis, and Ratio analysis

10.3 Accounting Ratios : Meaning objectives and classification of


10.4 Introductions to current ratio, liquid ratio, Gross profit ratio, operating profit ratio and Net profit ratio. ROI, ROCI


Organization of Commerce and Management

UNIT-1 Forms of business organizations

_ Sole proprietorship, Joint Hindu Family Business � meaning, features, merits and demerits.

_ Partnership � meaning, types, registration, merits, limitations, types of partners.

_ Co � Operative societies � types, merits and limitations.

_ Company � Private Ltd, Public Ltd � merits, limitations.

_ Starting a business � Basic factors.

_ Choice of forms of business organizations.

UNIT-2 Business services

_ Nature and types of Business services

�Banking, Insurance, Transportation, Warehousing, communication.

_ Banking � types of banks, functions of commercial banks, E

� banking.

_ Insurance � principles & types of life, fire, marine insurances.

_ Postal and Telecom services.

_ Warehousing � types and functions.

_ Transport � meaning, role, means.

UNIT -3 Emerging modes of Business

_ E � business � Meaning, Scope and benefits. Resource required for successful

E �Business implementation. On � line transactions, payment mechanism.

_ Security and safety of business transactions.

_ Outsourcing � Concept, need and scope.

UNIT-4 Social Responsibilities of business and business ethics.

_ Concept of social responsibility.

_ Cases for social responsibility.

_ Responsibility towards different interest groups, owners, investors, employees, consumers, government, community, public in general.

_ Business ethics � concept and elements.

_ Business and environmental protection.

UNIT-5 Consumer protection

_ Importance of consumer protection.

_ Rights of consumers

_ Consumer responsibilities.

_ Ways and means of consumer protection.

_ Consumer awareness and legal redressal with special reference to Consumer

Protection Act.

_ Role of Consumer Organization and NGOS.

UNIT-6 Principles of Management

_ Principles of Management � meaning, nature and significance.

_ Fayol�s Principles of Management.

_ Taylor�s scientific management � Principles and Techniques.

UNIT-7 Functions of Management

_ Planning � Meaning, Nature, Importance.

_ Organizing � Meaning, Nature, Importance.

_ Staffing � Meaning, Nature, Importance.

_ Directing � Meaning, Nature, Importance.

_ Controlling � Meaning, Nature, Importance.

_ Coordinating � Meaning, Nature, Importance.

UNIT-8 Entrepreneurship Development

_ Concept, Functions and Need.

_ Entrepreneurship: Characteristics and Competencies.

_ Process of entrepreneurship development.

_ Entrepreneurship Values: Attitudes and Motivation- Meaning and concept.


Secretarial Practice

UNIT-1 Business Finance

_ Business Finance � Meaning, role, objectives of financial management.

_ Financial planning � Meaning and importance.

_ Capital structure � Meaning and factors.

_ Fixed and working capital � Meaning and factors affecting their requirements.

UNIT-2 Sources of Business Finance

_ Nature and significance: Financial requirements and sources.

_ Methods of raising finance

Equity and preference shares

Debentures and Bonds

Retained profits

Public deposits

Loan from commercial banks

Loan from financial institutions

Trade credit

Discounting of bills of Exchange

Global Depository Receipt, American

Depository Receipt

UNIT-3 Role of a Secretary in the Capital Formation Part I

_ Meaning of issue of shares at par, premium and discount, at bid price

_ Meaning of Initial public offer.

_ Meaning of bonus issue

_ Meaning of rights issue

_ Meaning of Employee stock option scheme

_ Meaning of private placement.

_ Issue of shares � procedure

_ Allotment � Meaning, conditions for valid allotment, procedure

_ Transfer and Transmission of shares � Meaning, provisions, procedure, difference.

_ Issue of share certificate and share warrant

� Meaning, provisions, procedure, difference.

UNIT-4 Role of a Secretary in the Capital Formation Part II

_ Issue of debentures � procedure, conversion and redemption of debentures

_ Deposits � invitation, acceptance, renewal, repayment, default and remedies

_ Depositories and dematerialization of securities � meaning, importance, procedure, secretarial duties in issuing securities in dematerialized form

UNIT-5 Declaration and payment of dividend

_ Meaning

_ Provisions related to ascertainment of dividend, declaration of dividend and payment of dividend.

_ Procedure of payment of dividend.

_ Provisions regarding unpaid / unclaimed dividend

_ Interim and final dividend � Meaning and difference

UNIT-6 Correspondence of company secretary with members, debenture holders and depositors

_ Allotment of shares

_ Regret letter

_ Lodgement notice

_ Approval / Refusal of Transfer of shares

_ Issue of bonus shares

_ Distribution of dividend � notice

_ Allotment of debentures

_ Redemption of debentures

_ Conversion of debentures into shares

_ Payment of interest on debentures

_ Letter thanking the investor for deposits

_ Payment of interest (Basic information of TDS to be given)

_ Renewal of deposits

_ Repayment of deposits

UNIT -7 Financial markets

_ Concept of Financial market

_ Money market � nature, instruments.

_ Capital market- nature and constituents � primary and secondary market.

_ Distinction between capital market and money market.

_ Stock Exchange � meaning, functions, BSE, NSEI, Trading procedure.

_ Securities Exchange Board of India (SEBI) objectives, functions.



Section A Micro Economics

1. Introduction to Micro Economics

2. Consumers behavior

3. Demand

a. Analysis of Demand

b. Elasticity of Demand

4. Analysis of Supply

5. Types of Market & Price determination under Perfect competition

6. Factors of Production

Section B Macro Economics

7. Introduction to Macro Economics

8. National Income

9. Determinants of Aggregates

10. Money

11. Commercial Bank

12. Central Bank

13. Public Economics


Mathematics & Statistics

PART - 2

1. Mathematical logic

1.1 Statements

1.2 Logical Connectives

1.3 Statement patterns and logical equivalence

1.4 Algebra of statements

1.5 Venn diagrams

2. Matrices

2.1 Definition and types of matrices

2.2 Algebra of matrices

2.3 Inverse of a matrix

2.4 Solution of equations

3. Continuity

3.1 Continuity of a function at a point

4. Differentiation

4.1 Derivative of Inverse function

4.2 Logarithmic Differentiation

4.3 Derivative of implicit function

4.4 Derivative of parametric function

4.5 Second order derivative

5. Applications of Derivative

5.1 Increasing and decreasing functions

5.2 Maxima and minima

6. Indefinite Integration

6.1 Definition of an integral

6.2 Integral of standard functions

6.3 Rules of Integration

6.4 Methods of Integration

6.5 Integration by parts

7. Definite Integrals

7.1 Definite Integral

7.2 Properties

7.3 Applications

PART - 2

1. Ratio, Proportion and Partnership

1.1 Ratio, proportion and partnership

2. Commission, Brokerage and Discount

2.1 Commission and Brokerage

2.2 Discount

3. Insurance and Annuity

3.1 Insurance

3.2 Annuity

4. Demography

4.1 Introduction, Definition

4.2 Uses of vital statistics

4.3 Measurements of Mortality

4.4 Life tables

5. Bivariate Data and Correlation

5.1 Bivariate frequency distribution

5.2 Karl Pearson�s coefficient of correlation

5.3 Rank correlation

6. Regression Analysis Introduction

6.1 Equation of line of regression

6.2 Regression coefficients and their properties

7. Random Variable and Probability Distribution

7.1 Definition and types of random variables

7.2 Probability Distribution of a Discrete Random Variable

7.3 Probability Distribution of a Continuous Random Variable

7.4 Binomial Theorem

7.5 Binomial Distribution

7.6 Poisson Distribution

7.7 Normal Distribution

8. Management Mathematics

8.1 Inequations

8.2 Linear Programming Problem

8.3 Assignment Problem

8.4 Sequencing